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Explanation of historical names


Known as:


Charles Jean Bernadotte

Charles XIV John

French Charles Jean corresponds to English Charles John.

Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte

Napoléon III

Napoléon was the name he used when he proclaimed himself emperor.  III was a protest against Napoléon I's son not being accepted as emperor Napoléon II.

Napoleon Franz Joseph Karl Bonaparte

Napoléon II

This was what the Bonapartists (adherents of the Bonaparte family’s claim on the throne) called him.

Girolamo Buonaparte

Jérôme Bonaparte

Jérôme is the French equivalent of Italian Girolamo.

Giuseppe Napoleone Bunonaparte

Joseph Napoléon Bonaparte

Joseph and Napoléon are French equivalents of Italian Giuseppe and Napoleone.

Luciano Buonaparte

Lucien Bonaparte

Lucien is the French equivalent of Italian Luciano.

Luigi Napoleone Buonaparte

Louis Napoléon Bonaparte

Louis and Napoléon are French equivalents of Italian Luigi and Napoleone.

Maria Anna Elisa Buonaparte

Élisa Bonaparte

Élisa was her first name.  The accent on the E is a signal to Francophones to not pronounce it [ɒ].

Maria Annunziata Carolina Buonaparte

Caroline Bonaparte

Caroline is the French equivalent of her (Italian) first name Carolina.

Maria Paolina Buonaparte

Pauline Bonaparte

Pauline is the French equivalent of her (Italian) first name Paolina

Napoleone Buonaparte

Napoléon Bonaparte

Napoléon is the French equivalent of Italian Napoleone.  The clarification Napoléon I may be suitable.  For there have been 20 more people which – without lying – could call themselves “Napoléon Bonaparte”.

Louis Philippe de Capet

Louis Philip I

Philip is the English equivalent of French Philippe.  The numeral I don’t know the reason for.

Maria Ludovica von Habsburg-Lothringen

Marie-Louise of Austria

Marie-Louise is a francization of her given names.  Austria's imperial house was named von Habsburg-Lothringen.

Maria Łączyńska

Maria Walewska

Walewska was the surname she got the first time she married.

Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie

Josèphine de Beauharnais

Josèphine was just her nickname.  De Beauharnais was the surname she got the first time she married.

Maria Letizia Ramolino

Maria Letizia Bonaparte

Buonaparte was the surname she got when she married.

Aleksander Józef Walewski

Alexandre Joseph Walewski

Alexandre and Joseph are French equivalents of Polish Aleksander and Józef.

Arthur Wellesley

The Duke of Wellington or the Iron Duke.

The 1st Duke of Wellington was his noble title.  The Iron Duke was a nickname he got after putting iron bars on his windows to protect his house.  Apparently, he was one of the first to do so.

For everyone named Buonaparte the most common spelling was changed during their lifetime.

Last changed the 24th of April 2019.
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